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Oophorectomy

(Ovariectomy; Salpingo-Oophorectomy; Bilateral Oophorectomy; Oophorectomy, Bilateral)
Pronounced: o-frek-toe-me

Oophorectomy is the removal of one or both ovaries. This may be combined with removing the fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy). Removal of the ovaries and/or fallopian tubes is often done as part of a complete or total hysterectomy.

The Female Reproductive System
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Reasons for Procedure
An oophorectomy may be done to:
Treat cancer
Remove a large ovarian cyst
Treat chronic pelvic pain
Treat pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Possible Complications
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have an oophorectomy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications. These include:
Changes in sex drive
Hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause if both ovaries are removed
Depression and other forms of psychological distress
Reaction to anesthesia
Bleeding
Blood clots, particularly in the veins of the legs
Damage to other organs
Infection

Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
Previous pelvic surgery or serious infection
Obesity
Smoking
Diabetes

Be sure to discuss the risks with your doctor before the surgery.
What to Expect
Prior to Procedure
Your doctor may do the following:
Physical exam
Blood and urine tests
Ultrasound —a test that uses sound waves to examine the inside of the body
CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the body

Leading up to your procedure:
Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure.
Eat a light dinner the night before the procedure. After midnight, do not eat or drink anything, including water.
Arrange for a ride home and for help at home.

Anesthesia
General anesthesia may be used for open or laparoscopic surgery—You will be asleep.
Local anesthesia may be used for a laparoscopic procedure—The area will be numbed.

Description of Procedure
There are two different methods:
Abdominal Incision
A cut will be made. It will either be horizontal (side to side) across the pubic hair line, or vertical (up and down) from navel to pubic bone. Horizontal incisions leave less of a scar. Vertical incisions provide a better view inside the abdomen. The abdominal muscles will be pulled apart. The surgeon will be able to see the ovaries. The blood vessels will be tied off. This will help to prevent bleeding. The ovaries, and often the fallopian tubes, will be removed. The cut will be closed with staples or stitches.
Laparoscopic Procedure
The laparoscope is a thin tool with a tiny camera on the end. It will be inserted through a small cut near the navel. This will let the surgeon see the pelvic organs on a video monitor. Other small cuts will be made. Special tools will be inserted through these cuts. The tools will be used to cut and tie off the blood vessels and fallopian tubes. The ovaries will be detached. They will then be removed through a small incision at the top of the vagina. The ovaries may also be cut into smaller sections and removed through the tiny cuts in the abdominal wall. The cuts will be closed with stitches. This will leave small scars.


 

Salpingectomy

 Definition

Salpingectomy is the removal of one or both of a woman’s fallopian tubes, the tubes through which an egg travels from the ovary to theuterus.

Purpose

A salpingectomy may be performed for several different reasons. Removal of one tube (unilateral salpingectomy) is usually performed ifthe tube has become infected (a condition known as salpingitis).

Salpingectomy is also used to treat an ectopic pregnancy, a condition in which a fertilized egg has implanted in the tube instead ofinside the uterus. In most cases, the tube is removed only after drug treatments designed to save the structure have failed. (Women withone remaining fallopian tube are still able to get pregnant and carry a pregnancy to term.) The other alternative to salpingectomy issurgery to remove the fetus from the fallopian tube, followed by surgery to repair the tube.
A bilateral salpingectomy (removal of both the tubes) is usually done if the ovaries and uterus are also going to be removed. If thefallopian tubes and the ovaries are both removed at the same time, this is called a salpingo-oophorectomy. A salpingo-oophorectomy isnecessary when treating ovarian and endometrial cancer because the fallopian tubes and ovaries are the most common sites to whichcancer may spread.

Description

Regional or general anesthesia may be used. Often a laparoscope (a hollow tube with a light on one end) is used in this type of operation,which means that the incision can be much smaller and the recovery time much shorter.
In this procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision just beneath the navel. The surgeon inserts a short hollow tube into the abdomenand, if necessary, pumps in carbon dioxide gas in order to move intestines out of the way and better view the organs. After a wider doubletube is inserted on one side for the laparoscope, another small incision is made on the other side through which other instruments can beinserted. After the operation is completed, the tubes and instruments are withdrawn. The tiny incisions are sutured and there is very littlescarring.
In the case of a pelvic infection, the surgeon makes a horizontal (bikini) incision 4-6 in (10-15 cm) long in the abdomen right above thepubic hairline. This allows the doctor to remove the scar tissue. (Alternatively, a surgeon may use a vertical incision from the pubic bonetoward the navel, although this is less common.)


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