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Ischaemic heart disease
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 I20 – I25
ICD-9 410414
DiseasesDB 8695
eMedicine med/1568
MeSH D017202

Ischaemic or ischemic heart disease (IHD), or myocardial ischaemia, is a disease characterized by ischaemia (reduced blood supply) of the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries). Its risk increases with age, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia (high cholesterollevels), diabetes, and hypertension (high blood pressure), and is more common in men and those who have close relatives with ischaemic heart disease.

Symptoms of stable ischaemic heart disease include angina (characteristic chest pain on exertion) and decreased exercise tolerance. Unstable IHD presents itself as chest pain or other symptoms at rest, or rapidly worsening angina. Diagnosis of IHD is with an electrocardiogramblood tests (cardiac markers), cardiac stress testing or a coronary angiogram. Depending on the symptoms and risk, treatment may be with medication, percutaneous coronary intervention(angioplasty) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).

It is as of 2012 the most common cause of death in the world,[1] and a major cause of hospital admissions.[2] There is limited evidence for population screening, but prevention (with a healthy diet and sometimes medication for diabetes, cholesterol and high blood pressure) is used both to prevent IHD and to decrease the risk of complications.

The medical history distinguishes between various alternative causes for chest pain (such as dyspepsia, musculoskeletal pain, pulmonary embolism). As part of an assessment of the three main presentations of IHD, risk factors are addressed. These are the main causes ofatherosclerosis (the disease process underlying IHD): age, male sex, hyperlipidaemia (high cholesterol and high fats in the blood), smoking,hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, and the family history.[3]

myocardial [ˌmaɪəʊˈkɑːdɪəl]


(Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Anatomy) of or relating to the muscular tissue of the heart

Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003

Noun 1. contractility – the capability or quality of shrinking or contracting, especially by muscle fibers and even some other forms of living matter

ability – the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment
stypsisastringency – the ability to contract or draw together soft body tissues to check blood flow or restrict secretion of fluids
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
di·as·to·le  (dst-l)


1. Physiology The normal rhythmically occurring relaxation and dilatation of the heart chambers, especially the ventricles, during which they fill with blood.
2. The lengthening of a normally short syllable in Greek and Latin verse.

[Greek diastoldilation, separation, from diastelleinto expand : dia-apart; see dia- + stelleinto place, send; seestel- in Indo-European roots.]

dias·tolic (d-stlk) adj.
atheroma [ˌæθəˈrəʊmə]

n pl -mas-mata [-mətə]

(Medicine / Pathology) Pathol a fatty deposit on or within the inner lining of an artery, often causing an obstruction to the blood flow

[via Latin from Greek athērōma tumour full of matter resembling gruel, from athēra gruel]
atheromatous  [ˌæθəˈrɒmətəs -ˈrəʊ-] adj

Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy


Cardiomyopathy is an ongoing disease process that damages the muscle wall of the lower chambers of the heart. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a form of cardiomyopathy in which the walls of the heart’s chambers thicken abnormally. Other names for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis and asymmetrical septal hypertrophy.
sternum /ster·num/ (ster´num) [L.] a longitudinal unpaired plate of bone forming the middle of the anterior wall of the thorax, articulating above with the clavicles and along its sides with the cartilages of the first seven ribs. Its three parts are the manubrium, body, and xiphoid process.


Etymology: Gk, epi, above, gaster, stomach
pertaining to the epigastrium, the area above the stomach.
Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.
between the scapulae.
per·i·car·di·tis  (pr-kär-dts)


Inflammation of the pericardium.
Adj. 1. uremic - of or involving excess nitrogenous waste products in the urine (usually due to kidney insufficiency)uremic – of or involving excess nitrogenous waste products in the urine (usually due to kidney insufficiency)

pericardial friction rub

Etymology: Gk, peri, around, kardia, heart; L, fricare, to rub; ME, rubben
the rubbing together of inflamed membranes of the pericardium, as may occur in pericarditis or after a myocardial infarction. It produces a sound audible on auscultation. Also called pericardial murmur, pericardial rub.
Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.

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