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Abbreviations

    % abv percentage alcohol by volume
    ac ante cibum (before food)
    AIIRA angiotensin-II receptor antagonist
    AAFB acid-alcohol fast bacilli
    AAS atomic absorbance spectrophotometry
    Ab antibody
    ABC abacavir
    ABG arterial blood gasses
    ABPI ankle brachial pressure index
    ABR auditory brainstem response
    ACBS Advisory Committee on Borderline Substances
    ACDP Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
    ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
    ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
    aCL anticardiolipin
    ACR albumin:creatinine ratio
    ACT artemisinin-based combination therapy
    ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone
    ADH antidiuretic hormone
    AECG ambulatory electrocardiography
    AED automated external defibrillators
    AF atrial fibrillation
    AFE amniotic fluid embolism
    AFP alpha-fetoprotein
    AGXT alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase
    AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
    AIO Ambulance Incident Officer
    AJ ankle jerk
    ALF acute liver failure
    ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    AMAs anti-mitochondrial antibodies
    AMH anti-Müllerian hormone
    AMHP Approved Mental Health Professional
    ANA antinuclear antibody
    ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
    Anti-GBM antiglomerular basement membrane antibody
    anti-RNP antibodies to ribonucleoprotein
    anti-U1-RNP anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein
    a-NVH asymptomatic non-visible haematuria
    AP anteroposterior
    aPL antiphospholipid
    aPPT activated partial thromboplastin time
    APT adaptive pacing therapy
    APUD amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation
    AR ankle reflex
    ARB angiotensin receptor blocker
    ARC AIDS-related complex
    ARDS acute/adult respiratory distress syndrome
    ARR absolute risk reduction
    ART assisted reproduction technique
    ARVC arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
    ASD autistic spectrum disorder
    ASW approved social worker
    ASTRAL Angioplasty and Stent for Renal Artery Lesions
    ATC around the clock
    ATRA all-trans retinoic acid
    AVJRT atrioventricular junctional re-entry tachycardia
    AVNRT atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia
    AVNT atrioventricular nodal tachycardia
    AZOOR acute zonal occult outer retinopathy
    BAER brainstem auditory evoked response
    BAL bronchoalveolar lavage
    BALT bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue
    BAN British Approved Name
    BCBV Better Care Better Value
    BCG Bacille Calmette-Guérin
    BCh Bachelor of Surgery
    bd bis di twice daily
    BDD body dysmorphic disorder
    BHR bronchial hyperresponsiveness
    BiPAP bilevel positive airway pressure
    BJ biceps jerk
    BM Bachelor of Medicine
    BMA British Medical Association
    BMD bone mineral density
    BMJ British Medical Journal
    BMedSci Bachelor of Medical Sciences
    BMM behavioural migraine management
    BMS bare metal stent
    BMT bone marrow transplantation
    BMZ basement membrane zone
    BNF British National Formulary
    BNP brain natriuretic peptide
    BP blood pressure
    BPharm Bachelor of Pharmacy
    bpm beats per minute
    BPP biophysical profile
    BR biceps reflex
    BRA bilateral renal agenesis
    BRI building-related illness
    BSAP bone-specific alkaline phosphatase
    BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy
    BS MB Bachelor of Surgery and Bachelor of Medicine
    BSO bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
    C1-INH C1-inhibitor antigenic protein
    Ca carcinoma
    CA carbohydrate antigen
    CABG coronary artery bypass graft
    CAD computer-aided detection
    CA-MRSA community-acquired MRSA
    cANCA classical antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
    CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
    CAPS catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome
    CaSR calcium-sensitive receptor
    CAT cognitive analytic therapy
    cc cum cibo (with food)
    CCDC consultant in communicable disease control
    CCF congestive cardiac failure
    CCGR complete cytogenetic remission
    CCP cyclic citrullinated peptide
    CCPD continuous cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis
    CCU coronary care unit
    CDCR conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy
    CDI Children’s Depression Inventory
    CDI cranial diabetes insipidus
    CDT cardiotocograph
    CEA carcinoembryonic antigen
    CER control event rate
    CES Center for Epidemiologic Studies
    CES cauda equina syndrome
    CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
    CF complement fixation
    CFC chlorofluorocarbon
    CfI Centre for Infections
    cfu colony-forming unit
    CFS chronic fatigue syndrome
    CFTR cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
    CHAOS congenital high upper airway obstruction syndrome
    CHART continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy
    CHB complete heart block
    CHC Community Health Council
    CHD coronary heart disease
    CHM Commission on Human Medicines
    CHMP Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use
    CIRCI critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency
    CIS carcinoma in situ
    cm centimetre
    CMACE Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries
    CNS central nervous system
    CNV choroidal neovascularisation
    COAD chronic obstructive airways disease
    COCP combined oral contraceptive pill
    COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase
    COSHH Committee on Substances Hazardous to Health
    COT Consultation Observation Tool
    CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
    CPD continuing professional development
    CQC Care Quality Commission
    CRP C-reactive protein
    CRT cardiac resynchronisation therapy
    CSDD Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia
    CSE combined spinal-epidural
    CSII continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
    CSSD central sterile supply department
    CSSRs councils with social services responsibilities
    CT computed tomography
    CTG cardiotocograph
    CTPA computed tomography pulmonary angiogram
    CTR cardiothoracic ratio
    CTSI computed tomography severity index
    CUP carcinoma of unknown primary
    CVE/CVA cerebrovascular event/cerebrovascular accident
    CVP central venous pressure
    CVS chorionic villus biopsy
    CXR chest X-ray
    DA Diploma in Anaesthetics
    DABA dual action bone agent
    DAT direct antiglobulin test
    db HL decibels hearing loss
    DCD developmental co-ordination disorder
    DCG dacryocystogram
    DCh Doctor of Surgery
    DCH Diploma in Child Health
    DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ
    DCP Diploma in Clinical Pathology
    DCR dacryocystorhinostomy
    dcSSC diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis
    DDH developmental dysplasia of the hip
    DDS Doctor of Dental Surgery
    DEN Doctor’s Educational Need
    DES drug-eluting stent
    DEXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
    DFA direct fluorescent antibody
    DFHom Diploma of the Faculty of Homeopathy
    DFM Diploma in Forensic Medicine
    DFSA drug-facilitated sexual assault
    dGEMRIC gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage
    DGM Diploma in Geriatric Medicine
    DGO Diploma in Gynaecology and Obstetrics
    DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone
    DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
    DIF direct immunofluorescence
    DIP distal interphalangeal
    Dip GU Med Diploma in Genitourinary Medicine
    dL decilitre
    DLBCL diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
    DLCO diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide
    DM diabetes mellitus
    DMARD disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug
    DMR Diploma in Medical Radiology
    DMSA dimercaptosuccinic acid
    DO Diploma in Ophthalmology
    DObst Diploma in Obstetrics
    DOT directly observed therapy
    DPath Diploma in Pathology
    DPF Dental Practitioners’ Formulary
    DPH Diploma in Public Health
    DPhil Doctor of Philosophy
    DPhysMed Diploma in Physical Medicine
    DPM Diploma in Psychological Medicine
    DQ developmental quotient
    DR Diploma in Radiology
    DRCOG Diploma Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
    DRCPath Diploma Royal College of Pathologists
    DRESS Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms
    DREZ dorsal root entry zone
    DS Doctor of Surgery
    DSP digital signal processing
    DTs delirium tremens
    DTaP diphtheria (D), tetanus (T) and acellular pertussis (aP)
    DTB Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
    DXR digital X-ray radiogrammetry
    e/c enteric-coated
    EBL estimated blood loss
    EBM evidence-based medicine
    EBNA EBV nuclear antigen
    EBUS TBNA endobronchial US-guided transbronchial needle aspiration
    ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
    ECT electroconvulsive therapy
    ECV external cephalic version
    EDAMS encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis
    EDC estimated date of confinement
    EDD expected date of delivery
    EDS excessive daytime sleepiness
    EER experimental event rate
    EFWC electrolyte-free water clearance
    eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
    EIA enzyme immunoassay
    ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    EMA endomysial antibodies
    EMDA electromotive drug administration
    EMDAS encephalomyoduroarteriosynangiosis
    EMG electromyography
    ENG electronystagmography
    eod every other day
    EOG electro-oculogram
    ePACT electronic Prescribing Analysis and Cost Tool
    EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
    ePFIP electronic Prescribing and Financial Information for Practices
    EPO erythropoietin
    EPSEs extra-pyramidal side-effects
    ER (o)estrogen receptor
    ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    ERG electroretinography
    ERP exposure and relapse prevention
    ERT enzyme replacement therapy
    ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
    ESES electrical status epilepticus in sleep
    ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    ESWL extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
    EUA examination under anaesthesia
    EUS endoscopic ultrasonography
    EVAR endovascular aneurysm/aortic repair
    f/c film-coated
    FAP familial adenomatous polyposis
    FAMM familial atypical mole and melanoma
    FAST F ace A rm S peech T est
    FBC full blood count
    FDG fluorodeoxyglucose
    FDG-PET fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
    FEIA fluorescent enzyme immunoassay
    FENa fractional excretion of sodium
    FEUrea fractional excretion of urea
    FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second
    FFA Fellow Faculty of Anaesthetists
    FFCM Fellow Faculty of Community Medicine
    FFDM full-field digital mammography
    FFFP Fellow of the Faculty of Family Planning
    FFHom Fellow of the Faculty of Homeopathy
    FFPath Fellow Faculty of Pathology
    FFPHM Fellow Faculty of Public Health Medicine
    FFR Fellow Faculty of Radiologists
    FISH dual fluorescence in situ hybridisation
    FLA-ABS fluorescent antibody absorption test
    fl oz fluid ounce
    FMRP fragile X mental retardation protein
    FNA fine-needle aspiration
    FNAC fine-needle aspiration cytology
    FPR false positive rate
    FRCA Fellow Royal College of Anaesthetists
    FRCGP Fellow Royal College of General Practitioners
    FRCOG Fellow Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
    FRCOphth Fellow Royal College of Ophthalmology
    FRCPath Fellow Royal College of Pathologists
    FRCPS Fellow Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons
    FRCPsych Fellow Royal College of Psychiatrists
    FRCR Fellow Royal College of Radiologists
    FRCS Fellow Royal College of Surgeons
    FRS Fellow of the Royal Society
    FRSH Fellow Royal Society of Health
    FSE fetal scalp electrode
    FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
    FVC forced vital capacity
    > greater than
    g gram
    GA general anaesthetic
    GABS Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus
    GAD glutamic acid decarboxylase
    GALC galactosylceramidase
    GALT gut-associated lymphoid tissue
    GARS gait abnormality rating scale
    GBM glomerular basement membrane
    GCA giant cell arteritis
    G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
    GDM gestational diabetes mellitus
    GDS Geriatric Depression Scale
    GHRH growth hormone-releasing hormone
    GIFT gamete intrafallopian transfer
    GIST gastrointestinal stromal tumour
    GIT gastrointestinal tract
    GP General Practitioner
    GPi globus pallidus interna
    GR glucocorticoid receptor
    GRBAS Grade, Roughness, Breathy voice, Asthenia and Strain
    GREG guideline recommendation and evidence grading
    GVHD graft-versus-host disease
    HA-MRSA hospital-acquired MRSA
    HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy
    HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
    HAM HTLV-1-associated myelopathy
    HaNDL headache and neurological deficits + CSF lymphocytosis
    HAV hepatitis A virus
    HAVS hand-arm vibration syndrome
    HBcAg hepatitis B core antigen
    HBeAg hepatitis B e antigen
    HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen
    HCTD hereditary connective tissue disorders
    HDCV human diploid cell vaccine
    HFNEF heart failure with a normal ejection fraction
    HFPSF heart failure with preserved systolic function
    HGPRT hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
    Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b
    HIDA hepatobiliary imino-diacetic acid
    HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound
    HNIG human normal immunoglobulin
    HNPP hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies
    HOCM hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
    HoLEP holmium laser enucleation of the prostate
    HONK hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma
    HOOF Home Oxygen Order Form
    HPA CHaPD HPA Chemical Hazards and Poisons Division
    HPA NPIS HPA National Poisons Information Service
    HPN home parenteral nutrition
    HPU Health Protection Unit
    HRCT high-resolution CT
    HRV heart rate variability
    HSC Health and Social Care
    hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein
    HSG hysterosalpingogram
    HTLV-1 human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1
    HVA homovanillic acid
    HVPG hepatic venous pressure gradient
    HYVET HY pertension in the V ery E lderly T rial
    Hz hertz
    IABP intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation
    ICAM-1 intercellular adhesion molecule-1
    ICAS Independent Complaints Advocacy Services
    ICD implantable cardiac defibrillator
    ICHD International Classification of Headache Disorders
    ICP intracranial pressure
    ICP-MS inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
    ICS intercostal space
    ICSI intracytoplasmic sperm injection
    ICU intensive care unit
    IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    IDIF indirect immunofluorescence
    IE infective endocarditis
    IFN-gamma interferon-gamma
    IGF-I insulin-like growth factor-I
    IGFBP-3 insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3
    IGT impaired glucose tolerance
    IHD ischaemic heart disease
    IM intramuscular/ly
    IMB intermenstrual bleeding
    IMiD immunomodulatory drug
    IPPV intermittent positive pressure ventilation
    IPR impaired polysaccharide responsiveness
    IPV inactivated polio vaccine
    IQCODE Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly
    IRMA intraretinal microvascular abnormality
    IRT immunoreactive trypsinogen
    ISS Injury Severity Score
    IUCD intrauterine contraceptive device
    IUI intrauterine insemination
    in vivo within the living
    IVF-ET in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer
    IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin
    IVII IV insulin infusion
    IVP intravenous pyelogram
    IVRA intravenous regional anaesthesia
    IVU intravenous urogram
    JCVI Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation
    JVP jugular venous pressure
    kcal kilocalorie
    kg kilogram
    KJ knee jerk
    KOH potassium hydroxide
    KR knee reflex
    KTP potassium titanyl phosphate
    < less than
    L litre
    LA local anaesthetic
    LA lupus anticoagulant
    LABAs long-acting beta2 agonists
    LACIs lacunar infarcts
    LAIV live attenuated influenza vaccine
    LAMB lentigines, atrial myxoma, mucocutaneous myxoma, blue naevi
    LAP leukocyte alkaline phosphatase
    LARC long-acting reversible contraceptive
    LASEK laser epithelial keratomileusis
    LASIK laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
    LAUP laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty
    lb pound
    LCR ligase chain reaction
    LDH lactate dehydrogenase
    LFHom Licensed Associate of the Faculty of Homeopathy
    LFTs liver function tests
    LGIB lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding
    LH luteinising hormone
    LHH likelihood of being helped or harmed
    LHRHa luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist
    LIF left iliac fossa
    LINks Local Involvement Networks
    LLETZ large loop excision of the transformation zone
    LMA laryngeal mask airway
    LMP last menstrual period
    LMWH low molecular weight heparin
    LOC loss of consciousness
    LOD laparoscopic ovarian 'drilling'
    LSCS lower segment Caesarean section
    LSD lysergic acid diethylamide
    LTK laser thermal keratoplasty
    μg (mcg) microgram
    m metre
    m3 cubic metre
    mm3 cubic millimetre
    mm Hg millimetre of mercury
    mol mole
    m/r modified-release
    MAC membrane attack complex
    MALT mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
    MAOIs monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    MBAcA Member British Acupuncture Association
    MB BCh Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
    MB BChir Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
    MB BS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
    MB ChB Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
    MBL mannose-binding lectin
    MCAD medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
    MCh mean corpuscular haemoglobin
    MCH Master of Surgery
    MChir Master of Surgery
    MChOrth Master of Orthopaedic Surgery
    MCI mild cognitive impairment
    MClinPsychol Master of Clinical Psychology
    MCOT mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry
    MCP metacarpophalangeal
    MCR major cytogenetic remission
    MC&S microscopy, culture and sensitivity
    MCTD mixed connective tissue disease
    MCUG micturating cystourethrogram
    MCV mean cell volume
    MD Doctor of Medicine
    MDR multidrug-resistant
    MDT multidrug therapy
    MEB muscle-eye-brain (disease)
    MEL maximum exposure limit
    MELD model for end-stage liver disease
    MEN multiple endocrine neoplasia
    MenC meningitis C
    mEq milliequivalent
    MERIT Medical Emergency Response Incident Team
    MEWDS multiple evanescent white dot syndrome
    MFCPU multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis
    MFFP Member Faculty of Family Planning
    MFHom Member of the Faculty of Homeopathy
    MFOM Member Faculty of Occupational Medicine
    MFPHM Member Faculty of Public Health Medicine
    MFPR multifetal pregnancy reduction
    mg milligram
    MGUS monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
    miRNAs microRNAs
    MID multi-infarct dementia
    MIO Medical Incident Officer
    MIS Müllerian-inhibiting substance
    Mitf microphthalmia transcription factor
    MJ megajoule
    MKP melanoma of known primary source
    mL millilitre
    MMed Master of Medicine
    MMedSci Master of Medical Science
    MMR measles, mumps and rubella
    MODY maturity onset diabetes of the young
    MOH medicine overuse headache
    MPIG Minimum Practice Income Guarantee
    MR modified release
    MRA magnetic renal angiography
    MRCGP Member Royal College of General Practitioners
    MRCOG Member Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
    MRCP Member Royal College of Physicians
    MRCPath Member Royal College of Pathologists
    MRCPsych Member Royal College of Psychiatrists
    MRCS Member Royal College of Surgeons
    MRI magnetic resonance imaging
    MRCP magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
    MRSA meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    MRV magnetic resonance venography
    MSAFP maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein
    MSLT multiple sleep latency test
    MSSA meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
    MSU mid-stream specimen of urine
    MTCT mother-to-child transmission
    MUA manipulation under anaesthetic
    MUD matched unrelated donor
    MUP melanoma of unknown primary source
    MUGA multiple-gated acquisition
    MUPS medically unexplained physical symptoms
    MUS medically unexplained symptoms
    MuSK muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase
    Na sodium
    NAAT nucleic acid amplification test
    NABSA nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique
    NAC N-acetylcysteine
    NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    NADP nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    NAME naevi, atrial myxoma, myxoid neurofibroma and ephilides
    NASH non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
    NaTHNaC National Travel Health Network and Centre
    NBT nitroblue tetrazolium
    NCS nerve conduction studies
    NDI nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
    NE niacin equivalents
    NESP novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein
    NICE National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
    NICU neonatal intensive care unit
    NIDDM non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    NISS New Injury Severity Score
    NIV non-invasive ventilation
    nL nanolitre
    NNH number needed to harm
    NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    NNT number needed to treat
    NOIDs Notifications of Infectious Diseases
    NPF Nurse Prescribers' Formulary
    NPIS National Poisons Information Service
    NPPV noninvasive positive pressure ventilation
    NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
    NSE neuron-specific enolase
    NSTACS non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome
    NSTEMI non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
    NTD neural tube defect
    NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide
    NVH non-visible haematuria
    OAES otoacoustic emissions screen
    OATS osteoarticular transplantation
    OC&P ova, cysts and parasites
    OCT optical coherence tomography
    od omni die (every day)
    OES occupational exposure standard
    OGD oesophagogastroduodenoscopy
    om omni mane (every morning)
    OMIM Online Mendelian Inheritence in Man
    on omni nocte (every night)
    OTC over-the-counter
    OGTT oral glucose tolerance test
    OPCAB off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ORIF open reduction internal fixation
    PACG primary angle closure glaucoma
    PACT prescribing analysis and cost tabulation
    PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    PAI photoacoustic imaging
    PAIR Puncture, Aspiration, Injection, Re-aspiration
    PALS Patient Advice and Liaison Services
    PAM proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, metronidazole
    PAPP-A pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A
    PAPS primary antiphospholipid syndrome
    PAS periodic acid-Schiff
    PATH Proteinuria/Antiphospholipid syndrome/Thrombocytopenia/Hypertension
    PBP progressive bulbar palsy
    pc post cibum (after food)
    PCB post-coital bleeding
    PCC Patient Client Council
    PCEC purified chick embryo cell
    PCI pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    PCNL percutaneous coronary intervention
    PCNSL percutaneous nephrolithotomy
    PCOS Primary central nervous system lymphoma
    PCR polycystic ovarian syndrome
    PCV polymerase chain reaction
    PCV pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
    PDA patent ductus arteriosus
    PDD pervasive developmental disorder
    PDL pulsed dye laser
    PDT photodynamic therapy
    PEA pulseless electrical activity
    PECS picture exchange communication system
    PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure
    PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
    PEP post-exposure prophylaxis
    PEPSE post-exposure prophylaxis after sexual exposure
    PERLA pupils equal + react to light and accommodation
    PEST psoriasis epidemiology screening tool
    PET positron emission tomography
    PF(R) peak flow (rate)
    PI protease inhibitor
    PIC punctate inner choroidopathy
    PICU paediatric intensive care unit
    PIP proximal interphalangeal
    PIVKA-II protein induced from vitamin K absence
    PJRT permanent junctional re-entrant tachycardia
    PLDH pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride
    PLHA people living with HIV/AIDS
    PLMS periodic limb movements of sleep
    PLP1 proteolipid protein-1
    PLS primary lateral sclerosis
    PM polymyositis
    PMA progressive muscular atrophy
    PMETB Postgraduate Medical Education Training Board
    PML progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    PMN polymorphonuclear
    PMR polymyalgia rheumatica
    PND postnasal drip
    po per os by mouth
    POAG primary open angle glaucoma
    POCT point of care test
    POEM Patient-oriented Eczema Measure
    POIC progestogen-only injectable contraceptive
    PoM prescription-only medication
    POP plaster of Paris
    POSDI progestogen-only subdermal implant
    POSE primary obesity surgery, endoscopic
    POTS postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
    PP pancreatic polypeptide
    PP psychogenic polydipsia
    PPD purified protein derivative
    PPE personal protective equipment
    PPI proton pump inhibitor
    ppm parts per million
    PPRA-gamma peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma
    PPROM preterm, prelabour rupture of membranes
    PPV pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    PR progesterone receptor
    PRA preoperative risk assessment
    PRL prolactin
    prn pro re nata (when required)
    PRNP PR ioN P rotein
    PRP polyribosyl ribitol phosphate
    PS polysomnography
    PSA prostate specific antigen
    PSVT paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
    PT prothrombin time
    PTA polymyxin/tobramycin/amphotericin
    PTBD percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage
    PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    PTH parathyroid hormone
    PTRAA percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty
    PTX pneumothorax
    PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid
    PUNS Patient's Unmet Needs
    PUO pyrexia of unknown origin
    PVA polyvinyl alcohol
    PVS persistent vegetative state
    qad quoque alternis die (every other day)
    qam quaque die ante meridiem (every day before noon)
    qd quaque die (every day)
    qds quater die sumendum (to be taken four times daily)
    qh quaque hora (every hour)
    qhs quaque hora somni (every night at bedtime)
    qid quattuor in die (four times a day)
    qod every other day
    qpm quaque die post meridiem (every day after noon)
    qqh quarta quaque hora (every four hours)
    ® registered trademark
    RAADP routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis
    RADS Reynolds' Adolescent Depression Scale
    RAEB refractory anaemia with excess blasts
    RAEBt refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation
    RAPD relevant afferent pupil defect
    RARS refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts
    RAS renin angiotensin system
    RAST radioallergosorbent test
    RCA root cause analysis
    RCDS Reynolds' Child Depression Scale
    RCGP Royal College of General Practitioners
    RCN Royal College of Nursing
    RCOG Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
    RCT randomised controlled trial
    RDS respiratory distress syndrome
    RDT rapid diagnostic test
    REBT rational emotive behavioural therapy
    REE resting energy expenditure
    rFVIIa recombinant activated factor VIIa
    rHA recombinant haemagglutinin
    rhG-CSF recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
    rHuEPO recombinant human erythropoietin
    RICE Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
    RIF right iliac fossa
    RIFLE Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage kidney disease
    RIMA Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A
    rINN Recommended International Non-proprietary Name
    RLS restless legs syndrome
    RMO responsible medical officer
    rNA recombinant neuraminidase
    RPGN rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
    RPR rapid plasmin reagin
    RPS19 small ribosomal protein 19
    RPSGB Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
    RRR relative risk reduction
    RSI repetitive strain injury
    RTA renal tubular acidosis
    RUQ right upper quadrant
    RVOT right ventricular outflow tract
    s/c sugar-coated
    SABRE serious and adverse blood reactions and events
    SAD seasonal affective disorder
    SAD social anxiety disorder
    SAH subarachnoid haemorrhage
    SALT skin-associated lymphoid tissue
    SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis
    SCD sudden cardiac death
    SCHIN Sowerby Centre for Health Informatics at Newcastle
    SCID severe combined immune deficiency
    SCS spinal cord stimulation
    SCT supervised community treatment
    SEGA subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
    SEN subependymal nodule
    SERMs selective (o)estrogen receptor modulators
    SFH symphyseal fundal height
    SGA small for gestational age
    SHOX stature homeobox-containing gene
    SIGN Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network
    SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome
    SITREP situation report
    SJ supinator jerk
    SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
    SLR straight leg raise
    SLS selected list scheme
    SMC Scottish Medicines Consortium
    SNOMED Standardised Nomenclature of Medicine
    SNRIs serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
    s-NVH symptomatic non-visible haematuria
    SOCOs Scene of Crime Officers
    SPC Summary of Product Characteristics
    SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography scanning
    SpR Specialist Registrar
    SPRM selective progesterone receptor modulator
    SR supinator reflex
    SRS somatostatin receptor scintigraphy
    SRT structured reflective template
    SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
    SSS subclavian steal syndrome
    START Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment
    stat statim (immediately)
    STEMI ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
    STN subthalamic nucleus
    STOPP Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions
    SURUSS Serum Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study
    SVTs supraventricular tachycardias
    SXA single energy X-ray absorptiometry
    SXR skull X-ray
    TACE transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation
    TAPP transabdominal preperitoneal
    TATTS tired all the time syndrome
    TBSA total burn surface area
    TDF tenofovir DF
    Td/IPV tetanus, diphtheria and polio
    tds ter die sumendum (to be taken three days daily)
    TEE transoesophageal echocardiography
    TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
    TEP totally extraperitoneal
    TESE testicular sperm extraction
    TEVAR thoracic endovascular aneurysm/aortic repair
    TIA transient ischaemic attack
    tid ter in die (three times daily)
    TIPS transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
    TIVAS totally implantable venous access system
    tiw three times a week
    TJ triceps jerk
    TKI tyrosine kinase inhibitor
    TLC total lung capacity
    TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation
    TNA transient neurological attack
    TOP termination of pregnancy
    tPA tissue plasminogen activator
    TPN total parenteral nutrition
    TR triceps reflex
    TRALI transfusion-related acute lung injury
    TRISS Trauma and Injury Severity Score
    TRT tinnitus retraining therapy
    TSE transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
    TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
    TSS toxic shock syndrome
    TTE transthoracic echocardiography
    tTG tissue transglutaminase
    TUIP transurethral incision of the prostate
    TURP transurethral resection of the prostate
    TUVP transurethral vaporisation of the prostate
    TYM Test Your Memory
    U&E urea and electrolytes
    UCTD unclassified connective tissue disorder
    ud ut dictum (as directed)
    UGIB upper gastrointestinal bleeding
    ULN upper limit of normal
    UPD uniparental disomy
    UPPP uvelopalatopharyngoplasty
    URA unilateral renal agenesis
    VATS video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery
    VCA viral capsid antigen
    VEP visual evoked potential
    VF ventricular fibrillation
    VGCC voltage-gated calcium channel
    VH visible haematuria
    VIP vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
    VLCFA very long chain fatty acids
    VLDL very low-density lipoprotein
    VMA vanillylmandelic acid
    VPI velopharyngeal insufficiency
    VT ventricular tachycardia
    VTEC O157 verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157
    WASP Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
    WATCH Working Group on the Assessment of Toxic Chemicals
    WBH-DTI whole-brain histogram of diffusion tensor imaging
    WCC white cell count
    WHO World Health Organization
    WLL whole-lung lavage
    WRIGHT WHO Research into global hazards of travel
    XDR extensively drug-resistant


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